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Hildegar (Hildeger) is thought to be the first of the Carolingian Bishops of Cologne. He was killed during a campaign against the Saxons near Iburg. Hildegar was at times venerated as a saint. Under the Carolingian rulers art and culture experienced a golden age. Many precious shrines were created, the liturgy was reformed according to the Roman model, the "Schola Cantorum" and countless new churches were built. The expression "chaplain" goes back to the "chapel", an important church body at the Carolingian court, formed by the "cappelani", the guardians of the cloak (Latin cappa) of Saint Martin.