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Archbishop Gebhard Steward von Waldburg was the son of Imperial Baron Wilhelm Steward von Waldburg und Scheer. He showed a markedly Catholic tendency at the beginning of his reign and even was ordained a priest. This ended with his love affair with the Gerresheimer canoness Agnes von Mansfeld, whose brothers forced Gebhard to legalize the relationship. He then declared freedom of religion for the Archdiocese Cologne. In 1582 he converted to Protestantism and married Countess Agnes. His attempt to turn the Cologne archbishopric into a secular principality was resisted by the Cathedral Chapter and the City of Cologne. Gebhard was deposed by the Emperor and the Pope, which led to the Cologne War against his successor Ernst of Bavaria. Gebhard died childless in Strasbourg in 1601.