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Archbishop Paulus Cardinal Melchers was born to a wealthy merchant family in Münster. He was Bishop of Osnabrück before he was named Archbishop of Cologne. He especially valued personal ministry to his flock and the traditional forms of piety. Melchers participated in the First Vatican Council which resulted in the Kulturkampf, a historical conflict between the church and the Prussian state. He was arrested by the Prussians in 1874 and held for several months in Klingelpütz prison. In 1875 he avoided a second arrest by fleeing. In 1885 he stepped down and spent the rest of his life in Rome. The celebration of Cologne Cathedral's completion had to take place in the absence of its Archbishop.
Resting place: Cologne Cathedral, Archbishops' Crypt